In music notation, a rest indicates a pause in the music where no notes are played.

Rests are named according to their duration in the same way notes are, i.e.: whole rest, half rest, quarter rest, eighth rest sixteenth rest, thirty-second rest, sixty-fourth rest. In addition, any rest may be followed by one or two dots to extend its duration one-and-a-half or one-and-three-quarter times.

KYUU yasu (rest)

ASCII Art Representation:

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Character Etymology:

The leftmost radical is a person and the rightmost radical is a tree. Tree is used partially phonetically to express stop/stay, and partly semantically as tree, i.e. a shady place where people stop to rest. Now means stop or rest in general.

A Listing of All On-Yomi and Kun-Yomi Readings:

on-yomi: KYUU
kun-yomi: yasu(mu) yasu(maru) yasu(meru)

English Definitions:

  1. yasu(mu),kyuu(suru): rest; to take a day off; be absent; retire; sleep.
  2. yasu(meru): rest (oneself); let idle; give relief to.
  3. yasu(maru): be rested; feel at east; be relieved.
  4. yasu(maseru): excuse (someone); give a holiday to; make someone rest.
  5. yasura(u): rest, relax.
  6. yasu(mi): rest, recess, respite, suspension; vacation, holiday; absence; molting.

Unicode Encoded Version:

Unicode Encoded Compound Examples:

休火山 (kyuukazan): dormant volcano.
休日 (kyuujitsu): holiday, rest day.
休戦協定 (kyuusen kyootei): cease-fire agreement.

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Representational State Transfer (REST)

REST (REpresentational State Transfer) is a phrase coined by Roy Fielding in his dissertation Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. It is an attempt to describe the undocumented architectural design principles behind the Web. In fact you are using the World's largest and most popular REST system right now, yes, the World Wide Web.

"The World Wide Web architecture has evolved into a novel architectural style that I call 'representational state transfer.' Using elements of the client/server, pipe-and-filter, and distributed objects paradigms, this style optimises the network transfer of representations of a resource. A Web-based application can be viewed as a dynamic graph of state representations (pages) and the potential transitions (links) between states. The result is an architecture that separates server implementation from the client's perception of resources, scales well with large numbers of clients, enables transfer of data in streams of unlimited size and type, supports intermediaries (proxies and gateways) as data transformation and caching components, and concentrates the application state within the user agent components." - Roy Fielding

With all the talk of Web Services by the big software companies of this World, REST has (or will, maybe) come back into the limelight as an HTTP RPC protocol (like SOAP and XML-RPC).

The Web As We Know It

What REST basically says is "the Web is cool, HTTP is cool, and it already does everything we want and it works! Why do we need anything more?"

The Web as defined by Tim Berners-Lee consists of three elements:

  • URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) - The way of uniquely identifying resources on the network.
  • HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) - The protocol used to request a resource from a URI and respond to requests.
  • HTML (HyperText Markup Language) - The content format of resources to be returned.

The interesting aspect of this mixture is the HyperText Transfer Protocol.

We all use it everyday, but why is it so interesting. Well HTTP is a very cleverly designed protocol, it defines a small global set of verbs (the HTTP Methods: GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc) and applies them to a potentially infinite set of nouns (URIs). Most of the time when using the Web, you use the HTTP GET method to retrieve documents, if you're submitting some form data you may use the POST method, there are however a whole handful of other useful methods defined but rarely used on the Web but perfect for REST based Web Services.

HTTPs power comes from its simplicity and extensibility. The ability to distribute any payload with headers, using predefined methods makes HTTP and its built-in support for URIs and resources, makes it really special. URIs are the defining characteristic of the Web, the mojo that makes it work and scale. HTTP as a protocol keeps the URI front and center by defining all methods as operations on URI-addressed resources.

Tell Me The REST

Stupid backronym puns aside, the idea of REST is to take what we all take for granted in the Web (ie. HTTP and URIs) and use it with other payloads (other than HTML, images, etc.) and other HTTP Methods than the usual GET and POST. REST defines identifiable resources (URIs), and methods for accessing and manipulating the state of those resources (HTTP Methods).

HTTP messaging formats like SOAP and XML-RPC are supposedly the next big thing in the ever developing world of the Web and the Internet. The idea of being able to link applications together using a standard open RPC format over HTTP connections shows great promise for distributed computing and interoperability, but the major problem with them is they purposefully break the HTTP spec by adding another layer of abstraction onto HTTP rather than using the protocol as it was designed. REST says this extra layer is an unnecessary layer of complexity.

SOAP and XML-RPC are both designed to operate from a single URI with methods being invoked from within the request payload. This fails to use URIs as they were designed to be used. A URI is supposed to be a unique resource on the network (an object as it were) and as such, each method in your RPC call should use a unique URI.

Using REST this is the case, and depending on your request method, different actions can be invoked. REST uses HTTP as it was designed, if you want to get some data you use a HTTP GET request, if you want to delete a record from a database you use a HTTP DELETE request, etc.

Advantages of REST

Differences Between REST and RPC

REST is not RPC, RPC says, "define some methods that do something" whereas REST says, "define some resources and they will have these methods".

It is a subtle but vital difference, when given a URI anyone knows they can interact with it via the predefined set of methods and receive standard HTTP responses in return. So given www.everything2.com/index.pl I know I can issue a GET on it and receive something meaningful back. I may then try a PUT on it to change it and receive a meaningful HTTP error code since I'm not authorised to meddle with E2.

Conclusion

The Web of yesterday was all about transferring documents over the network to a users eyes, the Web of today adds the delivering of Web based services (ala e-mail, recruitment, shopping, etc.) to the mix, the Web of tomorrow will extend this information and service source from just being a user experience to being a generic client system.

SOAP, XML-RPC, and other XML messaging over HTTP protocols may be the way this new era of the Web is created, the big (and not so big) corporates certainly think so, but REST shows that the infrastructure to do these types of machine to machine communications is already in place and has been since HTTP, the URI, and the Web was invented.

Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures - http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/pubs/dissertation/top.htm
RESTWiki - http://internet.conveyor.com/RESTwiki/

Rest (r?st), v. t. [For arrest.]

To arrest.

[Obs.]

 

© Webster 1913.


Rest, n. [AS. rest, rst, rest; akin to D. rust, G. rast. OHG. rasta, Dan. & Sw. rast rest, repose, Icel. rst the distance between two resting places, a mole, Goth. rasta a mile, also to Goth. razn house, Icel. rann, and perhaps to G. ruhe rest, repose, AS. rw, Gr. Cf. Ransack.]

1.

A state of quiet or repose; a cessation from motion or labor; tranquillity; as, rest from mental exertion; rest of body or mind.

Chaucer.

Sleep give thee all his rest! Shak.

2.

Hence, freedom from everything which wearies or disturbs; peace; security.

And the land had rest fourscore years. Judges iii. 30.

3.

Sleep; slumber; hence, poetically, death.

How sleep the brave who sink to rest, By all their country's wishes blest. Collins.

4.

That on which anything rests or leans for support; as, a rest in a lathe, for supporting the cutting tool or steadying the work.

He made narrowed rests round about, that the beams should not be fastened in the walls of the house. 1 Kings vi. 6.

5. Anc. Armor

A projection from the right side of the cuirass, serving to support the lance.

Their visors closed, their lances in the rest. Dryden.

6.

A place where one may rest, either temporarily, as in an inn, or permanently, as, in an abode.

"Halfway houses and travelers' rests."

J. H. Newman.

In dust our final rest, and native home. Milton.

Ye are not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance which the Lord your God giveth you. Deut. xii. 9.

7. Pros.

A short pause in reading verse; a c&ae;sura.

8.

The striking of a balance at regular intervals in a running account.

"An account is said to be taken with annual or semiannual rests."

Abbott.

9.

A set or game at tennis.

[Obs.]

10. Mus.

Silence in music or in one of its parts; the name of the character that stands for such silence. They are named as notes are, whole, half, quarter,etc.

Rest house, an empty house for the accomodation of travelers; a caravansary. [India] -- To set, ∨ To set up, one's rest, to have a settled determination; -- from an old game of cards, when one so expressed his intention to stand or rest upon his hand. [Obs.] Shak. Bacon.

Syn. -- Cessation; pause; intermission; stop; stay; repose; slumber; quiet; ease; quietness; stillness; tranquillity; peacefulness; pease. -- Rest, Repose. Rest is a ceasing from labor or exertion; repose is a mode of resting which gives relief and refreshment after toil and labor. The words are commonly interchangeable.

 

© Webster 1913.


Rest (r?st), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rested; p. pr. & vb. n. Resting.] [AS. restan. See Rest, n.]

1.

To cease from action or motion, especially from action which has caused weariness; to desist from labor or exertion.

God . . . rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. Gen. ii. 2.

Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest. Ex. xxiii. 12.

2.

To be free from whatever wearies or disturbs; to be quiet or still.

There rest, if any rest can harbor there. Milton.

3.

To lie; to repose; to recline; to lan; as, to rest on a couch.

4.

To stand firm; to be fixed; to be supported; as, a column rests on its pedestal.

5.

To sleep; to slumber; hence, poetically, to be dead.

Fancy . . . then retires Into her private cell when Nature rests. Milton.

6.

To lean in confidence; to trust; to rely; to repose without anxiety; as, to rest on a man's promise.

On him I rested, after long debate, And not without considering, fixed fate. Dryden.

7.

To be satisfied; to acquiesce.

To rest in Heaven's determination. Addison.

To rest with, to be in the power of; to depend upon; as, it rests with him to decide.

 

© Webster 1913.


Rest, v. t.

1.

To lay or place at rest; to quiet.

Your piety has paid All needful rites, to rest my wandering shade. Dryden.

2.

To place, as on a support; to cause to lean.

Her weary head upon your bosom rest. Waller.

 

© Webster 1913.


Rest, n. [F. reste, fr. rester to remain, L. restare to stay back, remain; pref. re- re- + stare to stand, stay. See Stand, and cf. Arrest, Restive.] (With the definite article.)

1.

That which is left, or which remains after the separation of a part, either in fact or in contemplation; remainder; residue.

Religion gives part of its reward in hand, the present comfort of having done our duty, and, for the rest, it offers us the best security that Heaven can give. Tillotson.

2.

Those not included in a proposition or description; the remainder; others.

"Plato and the rest of the philosophers."

Bp. Stillingfleet.

Armed like the rest, the Trojan prince appears. DRyden.

3. Com.

A surplus held as a reserved fund by a bank to equalize its dividends, etc.; in the Bank of England, the balance of assets above liabilities.

[Eng.]

Syn. -- Remainder; overplus; surplus; remnant; residue; reserve; others.

 

© Webster 1913.


Rest, v. i. [F. rester. See Rest remainder.]

To be left; to remain; to continue to be.

The affairs of men rest still uncertain. Shak.

 

© Webster 1913.

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