The childish side of medicine.
Just kidding. Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with children and has evolved to be separate from adult medicine. Also spelt as paediatrics in non-American English speaking nations.
A major difference between pediatrics and adult medicine is that there is a much greater emphasis on congenital disorders. Approaching a child is very different from approaching an adult and it is quite different relating to a child than an adult. Often, the clinical history taking relies on the story provided by the parents.
Pediatricians are specialists in pediatrics. One thing that pediatricians often must keep in mind is the possibility of child abuse in cases wherever the given history from a parent does not match the pattern of injuries suffered by the child.