Operation Hardtack I was the code name for the series of U.S. nuclear tests in the Pacific in 1958. It included 34 shots, more than the sum total of Pacific oceanic tests to date. It is also notable for the TEAK and ORANGE shots, which were 3.8 megaton detonations at high altitude, lofted by THOR missile. These were launched not from the Pacific Proving Grounds of Eniwetok but from Johnston Island, a small island approximately 700 nautical miles from the Hawaiian Islands. The detonations were seen from Hawaii, lighting up the entire sky to nearly daylight levels for several seconds; in addition, radio communications over the Pacific were knocked out for nearly half an hour after each shot due to scintillation effects, and electromagnetic pulse damaged power and electronic devices in Hawaii.