The system of Government in the Star Wars universe which was ultimately overtaken by Chancellor Palpatine, who declared himself Emperor during a period of martial law. The Republic had ruled for an awfully long time and had a great many goods to it's name. The Galactic Empire, which followed, had very few.
When the Empire was overthrown, it was replaced by the New Republic (which, if you believe the Expanded Universe books, is constantly being threatened)

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