(probability, information theory:)
Log odds (ratio). The logarithm of the ratio appearing in the Nayman-Pearson lemma. If it's a base-2 logarithm, the units are bits; if it's a natural logarithm, the units are nats. Presumably, a common logarithm would come in units of digits, although I've not seen this usage.
In computer graphics, LoD is Levels of Detail.

A polygonal model is made with more than one variation, of varying complexity. When viewed from close up, a more complex version of the model is rendered. When viewed at a long distance, a simpler model can be substituted with little visual impact, leaving more time to render the important stuff in the scene.

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