(Named for Kemal Atatürk)
The ideology of Turkish nationalism. Kemalism was officially formulated in 1931 and has, since 1937, been part of the constitution of Turkey. Central ideas of Kemalism have been implemented in other countries, including Tunisia, Bangladesh, and (since 1974) in the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus.
The basic principle of Kemalism was the creation of a strong, Europeanising and development-oriented Turkish n ationalism, as a replacement for the Islamic/Ottoman introspection of the Sultanate. Kemalism places great importance on national solidarity, transcending class lines; it also legitimises an extensive state interference in the country's economy.
The cornerstone of Kemalism is secularism, the clear separation of religion and state. Three times (in 1960, 1971, and 1980), the Turkish military has intervened to uphold the Kemalist doctrines against politicians who sought to reintroduce Islam into the Turkish state. The Kemalist doctrines came under particular fire during the tenure in office of the strongly Islamist prime minister Necmettin Erbakan, from 1996 to 1997.