used to be called when it was a French colony, from 1883 until 1954.
Also, the title of a movie set during towards the end of the colonial rule. Catherine Deneuve plays a rubber plantation owner whose Vietnamese adoptied daugher Camille falls in love with a young French officer. For him, that's breaking the rules big time, so the two lovers elope. During their travels across the land, they get to see the ugly reality of colonialism and Camille shoots a slave trader who killed a woman they had been travelling with. She becomes a symbol for those who fight for independence from France, but her love and her personal happiness are doomed from that moment on. Her adopted mother watches from afar and is unable to do anything to stop the tragedy.
Some love the movie and some hate it. Personally, I found the story captivating, if a bit artificial. However, the most memorable aspect are the stunningly beautiful shots of Vietnam's landscape.