(From the Latin Germania, "Germany") A grayish-white, brittle, crystalline, nonmetallic chemical element of the carbon family, found in composite ores, especially with silver and zinc. Ultrapure germanium is used as a semiconductor, and as its properties are markedly changed by doping with arsenic or gallium, its main use is in the manufacture of transistors. Both germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to infrared radiation and so are used in infrared spectroscopes.

Symbol: Ge
Atomic number: 32
Atomic weight: 72.61
Density (at room temperature and pressure): 5.323 g/cc
Melting point: 937.4°C
Boiling point: 2,830°C
Valence: +2, +4
Ground state electron configuration: [Ar]3d104s24p2

Symbol: Ge
Atomic Number: 32
Atomic Weight: 72.61
Boiling Point: 3107 K
Melting Point: 1211.5 K
Density at 300K: 5.32 g/cm3
Covalent radius: 1.22
Atomic radius: 1.52
Atomic volume: 13.60 cm3/mol
First ionization potental: 7.899 V
Specific heat capacity: 0.32 Jg-1K-1
Thermal conductivity: 59.9 Wm-1K-1
Electrical conductivity: 3x10-6106Ω-1m-1
Heat of fusion: 31.8 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 334.3 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 2.01 (Pauling's)

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Ger*ma"ni*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. Germania Germany.] Chem.

A rare element, recently discovered (1885), in a silver ore (argyrodite) at Freiberg. It is a brittle, silver-white metal, chemically intermediate between the metals and nonmetals, resembles tin, and is in general identical with the predicted ekasilicon. Symbol Ge. Atomic weight 72.3.


© Webster 1913.

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