(So named in 1886 by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, French chemist, and Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Swiss chemist, who had each isolated it, in honor of Johan Gadolin) A chemical element, one of the rare-earth metals, that is highly magnetic at low temperatures, superconductive, and has the highest rate of neutron absorption of any element. Its alloys are used in making magnets and electronic components and in the recording heads of video recorders.

Symbol: Gd
Atomic number: 64
Atomic weight: 157.25
Density (at room temperature and pressure): 7.90 g/cc
Melting point: 1,313°C
Boiling point: 3,273°C
Valence: +3
Ground state electron configuration: [Xe]4f75s16s2
Symbol: Gd
Atomic Number: 64
Atomic Weight: 157.25
Boiling Point: 3545 K
Melting Point: 1585 K
Density at 300K: 7.90 g/cm3
Covalent radius: 1.61
Atomic radius: 2.54
Atomic volume: 19.9 cm3/mol
First ionization potental: 6.15 V
Specific heat capacity: 0.236 Jg-1K-1
Thermal conductivity: 10.6 Wm-1K-1
Electrical conductivity: 0.8*106Ω-1m-1
Heat of fusion: 15.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 311.71 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 1.20 (Pauling's)

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Gadolinium is the only stable element that is named after a person. Many transuranic elements derive their names from scientists, starting with Curium (element 96) after Marie Curie. However, all of these are radioactive and therefore decaying into lower elements.

Considering that Gadolin himself did not discover gadolinium, this is an exceptional honor. However, it is explained by Gadolin's pioneering work on rare-earth metals in general, which started with his discovery of yttrium. Hence one of these metals now carries the name of this Finnish chemist.

Gad`o*lin"i*um (?), n. [NL. See Gadolinite.] (Chem.)

A supposed rare metallic element, with a characteristic spectrum, found associated with yttrium and other rare metals. Its individuality and properties have not yet been determined.


© Webster 1913

Gad`o*lin"i*a (?), n. [NL. See Gadolinite.]

A rare earth associated with yttria and regarded as the oxide (Gd2O3) of a metallic element, Gad`o*lin"i*um (&?;), with an assigned atomic weight of 153.3.


© Webster 1913

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