A civil rights campaign organized by the Congress of Racial Equality and SNCC in 1961. Groups of interracial activists would ride interstate buses into Southern towns and try to enter segregated bus stations. The results were sometimes violent with many of the riders being beaten and arrested by the local police. Stokely Carmichael was one of the freedom riders who was jailed for nearly two months. Ultimately, the experiment was successful as the violent reactions against peaceful action brought national attention to the movement.

The second article of the Civil Rights Act (1964) made discrimination in public accomodations involved in interstate commerce illegal.

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