In the "Preliminary Expectoration" of Fear and Trembling*, Kierkegaard posits the temperaments of Abraham in the course of his trial. In recognizing the “greatness” of Abraham’s faith, he ponders the prevalence of great people in contemporary times, by way of which he replaces Abraham’s character with his own. This exercise is meant to demonstrate the transcendental quality of “greatness” relative to the general disposition, and is concluded with an analysis of his character’s actions which justifies his sense of the mundane.
Kierkegaard’s exercise and analysis interplay with each the other, drawing attention to a single attitude and how it deserves to be treated. He narrates that, upon mounting his horse,
“…I would have said to myself: Now all is lost, God demands Isaac, I sacrifice him with all my joy – yet God is love and continues to be that for me, for in the world of time God and I cannot talk with each other, we have no language in common.” (p. 35)
Two parts of this passage require explication in this case, which in turn requires the exploration of Kierkegaard’s prior discussion. He understands Isaac as being bound to “all Abraham’s
joy” based on his notion of expectancy
, which holds that faith capacitates hope
for the future in circumstances that seem to defeat it rationally
. Before his covenant with God, Sarah
had been barren; at the time of the covenant, Abraham was 99 years and Sarah, 90. The absurdity
of their conception of Isaac was naturally absolute, but with the intervention of God
it happened. That Abraham and Sarah may have been incredulous of God’s promise may be relevant, but what is more important is that Abraham had heard God before, and had faith in Him during the period of Sarah’s sterility. Therefore, not only was Isaac’s connection to his father’s happiness a matter of paternal love
, but also of the affirmation of the divine; and with the loss of Isaac, he would also lose the lucre of his faithful patience
“…yet God is love and continues to be that for me…” Kierkegaard claims that in his saying this, he would be replacing Abraham’s faith with his own lesser “resignation”. He writes that “…the movement of faith must continually be made by virtue of the absurd…” (p. 37), which appears to relegate Abraham, as an agent of faith, to a purely emotional existence. His actions all accord to the order of God, grounded in the irrational hope that He is merely scheming to test him – so his interior experience is all to which he is left. Kierkegaard, in contrast, imagines that with his soliloquy he would be foregoing faith. In proposing the words he does, Kierkegaard claims that he would “not be able to do more than make the infinite movement in order to find (him)self and again rest in (him)self” (p. 35), which abandons absurdity in favor of personal comfort. For the implication of this statement is that while Abraham desperately wanted not to kill his son at every moment of the sacrifice process, Kierkegaard would have been overwhelmed by the terror of God’s command to the extent that he would have merely divorced himself from the situation for his own sense of security (in God).
Until this point in his exercise and analysis, Kierkegaard’s reasoning is straight-forward and generally agreeable – but he may take his conclusion regarding Abraham’s love for Isaac to a rational extreme. He claims that should he have adopted the attitude that his soliloquy demonstrates, he could not have loved Isaac as Abraham did. His support is nearly nonsensical: “…I would not have loved as Abraham loved, for then I would have held back at the very last minute, without, however, arriving too late at Mount Moriah” (p. 35). While this behavior is plausible in the presence of a love like Abraham’s, it does not occur to me as any less likely in the presence of a lesser love, should true faith be absent in both cases. Indeed, should Abraham have done so, it might follow that Kierkegaard should insert his own cessation -- but simultaneously this would render his point valueless. Anyhow, brilliance pursues! He goes on to write that what would have been impossible for him was easy for Abraham -- the survival of his son. Abraham, he argues, was able to accept the survival of Isaac in stride thanks to his infinite resignation of the finite. With every moment mounting to the sacrifice, he hoped that God should rescind his demand of Isaac; and with the preservation of his son, Abraham’s expectancy was fulfilled, and he was able to return to feeling as he did without faulting himself for nearly committing filicide. For Kierkegaard the survival of Isaac would be tragic, because after the fact he would not be able to reconcile that, in the face of a test which amounted to nothing, he had almost rid himself of his greatest pleasure in life. In Kierkegaard’s words, “for he who with all the infinity of his soul, proprio motu et propriis auspiciis, has made the infinite movement and cannot do more, he keeps Isaac only with pain” (p. 35).
Kierkegaard attacks those who would regard his actions as being greater than Abraham’s, calling them “foolish” and “envious of the great” (p. 35). I am not sure that I condone these judgments. It may be that the fatal flaw in this amazing scenario is that, really, Kierkegaard’s resignation would be a form of faith that does not fit his “expectancy” model. It seems to me that in doing as he would, it actually would be to take that final step beyond infinite resignation into faith, and that it is possible for one to be faithful without re-adopting the finite – as only the Knight of Faith can. But that is another essay.
*My edition of Fear and Trembling
is a paperback edited and translated by Howard and Edna Hong, and is printed with Repitition
. The ISBN-10
This has been a NODE YOUR HOMEWORK