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12:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt saying, 12:2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
12:3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: 12:4 And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.
12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: 12:6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
12:7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.
12:8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
12:9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof.
12:10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.
12:11 And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD's passover.
12:12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
12:13 And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.
12:14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinancefor ever.
12:15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
12:16 And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.
12:17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.
12:18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.
12:19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.
12:20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.
12:21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.
12:22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.
12:23 For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.
12:24 And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.
12:25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath [promised, that ye shall keep this service.
12:26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service? 12:27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD's passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.
12:28 And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
12:29 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
12:30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
12:31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
12:32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.
12:33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.
12:34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
12:35 And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: 12:36 And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
12:37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.
12:38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
12:39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.
12:40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
12:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
12:42 It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
12:43 And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof: 12:44 But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.
12:45 A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.
12:46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.
12:47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
12:48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.
12:49 One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto he stranger that sojourneth among you
12:50 Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
12:51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.


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King James Bible:Exodus
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible
back to: Exodus
Book: Exodus
Chapter: 12

Overview:
The beginning of the Year changed, The Passover instituted.
(1-20) The people instructed how to observe the Passover.
(21-28) The Death of the First-born of the Egyptians, The
Israelites urged to leave the land of Egypt. (29-36) The
Israelites' first Journey to Succoth. (37-42) Ordinance
respecting the Passover. (43-51)

1-20 The Lord makes all things new to those whom he delivers
from the Bondage of Satan, and takes to himself to be his
people. The time when he does this is to them the beginning of a
new Life. God appointed that, On the night wherein they were to
go out of Egypt, each family should kill a Lamb, or that two or
three families, if small, should kill one Lamb. This Lamb was to
be eaten in the manner here directed, and the Blood to be
sprinkled On the Door-posts, to Mark the houses of the
Israelites from those of the Egyptians. The Angel of the Lord,
when destroying the First-born of the Egyptians, would pass over
the houses marked By the Blood of the Lamb: hence the name of
this holy Feast or ordinance. The Passover was to be kept every
Year, both as a remembrance of Israel's preservation and
deliverance out of Egypt, and as a remarkable Type of Christ.
Their safety and deliverance were not a reward of their own
Righteousness, but the Gift of Mercy. Of this they were
reminded, and By this ordinance they were taught, that all
blessings came to them through the shedding and sprinkling of
Blood. Observe, 1. The paschal Lamb was typical. Christ is our
Passover, 1Co 5:7. Christ is the Lamb of God, Joh 1:29;
often in the Revelation he is called the Lamb. It was to be in
its prime; Christ offered up himself in the midst of his days,
not when a Babe at Bethlehem. It was to be without Blemish; the
Lord Jesus was a Lamb without spot: the Judge who condemned
Christ declared him innocent. It was to be set apart four days
before, denoting the marking out of the Lord Jesus to be a
Saviour, both in the purpose and in the promise. It was to be
slain, and roasted with Fire, denoting the painful sufferings of
the Lord Jesus, even unto Death, the Death of the Cross. The
wrath of God is as Fire, and Christ was made a Curse for us. Not
a bone of it must be broken, which was fulfilled in Christ, Joh
19:33, denoting the unbroken strength of the Lord Jesus. 2. The
sprinkling of the Blood was typical. The Blood of the Lamb must
be sprinkled, denoting the applying of the merits of Christ's
Death to our souls; we must receive the Atonement, Ro 5:11.
Faith is the Bunch of Hyssop, By which we apply the promises,
and the benefits of the Blood of Christ laid up in them, to
ourselves. It was to be sprinkled On the Door-posts, denoting
the open profession we are to make of Faith in Christ. It was
not to be sprinkled upon the Threshold; which cautions us to
take heed of trampling under foot the Blood of the Covenant. It
is precious Blood, and must be precious to us. The Blood, thus
sprinkled, was a means of preserving the Israelites from the
destroying Angel, who had nothing to do where the Blood was. The
Blood of Christ is the believer's protection from the wrath of
God, the Curse of the Law, and the Damnation of Hell, Ro 8:1.
3. The solemn Eating of the Lamb was typical of our Gospel duty
to Christ. The paschal Lamb was not to be looked upon only, but
to be fed upon. So we must By Faith make Christ our own; and we
must receive spiritual strength and nourishment from him, as
from our Food, see Joh 6:53,55. It was all to be eaten; those
who By Faith feed upon Christ, must feed upon a whole Christ;
they must take Christ and his Yoke, Christ and his Cross, as
Well as Christ and his Crown. It was to be eaten at once, not
Put By till morning. To-Day Christ is offered, and is to be
accepted while it is called to-Day, before we sleep the sleep of
Death. It was to be eaten with Bitter herbs, in remembrance of
the bitterness of their Bondage in Egypt; we must feed upon
Christ with sorrow and brokenness of Heart, in remembrance of
Sin. Christ will be sweet to us, if Sin be Bitter. It was to be
eaten standing, with their staves in their hands, as being ready
to depart. When we feed upon Christ By Faith, we must forsake
the rule and the dominion of Sin; sit loose to the world, and
every thing in it; forsake all for Christ, and reckon it No bad
bargain, Heb 13:13,14. 4. The Feast of unleavened Bread was
typical of the Christian Life, 1Co 5:7,8. Having received
Christ Jesus the Lord, we must continually delight ourselves in
Christ Jesus. No manner of work must be done, that is, No care
admitted and indulged, which does not agree with, or would
lessen this holy joy. The Jews were very strict as to the
Passover, So that No Leaven should be found in their houses. It
must be a Feast kept in Charity, without the Leaven of malice;
and in sincerity, without the Leaven of hypocrisy. It was By an
ordinance for ever; So long as we live we must continue feeding
upon Christ, rejoicing in him always, with thankful mention of
the great things he has done for us.

21-28 That night, when the First-born were to be destroyed, No
Israelite must stir out of Doors till called to march out of
Egypt. Their safety was owing to the Blood of sprinkling. If
they Put themselves from under the protection of that, it was at
their peril. They must stay within, to wait for the Salvation of
the Lord; it is good to do So. In after-times they should
carefully teach their children the meaning of this service. It
is good for children to ask about the things of God; they that
ask for the way will find it. The keeping of this solemnity
every Year was, 1. To look backward, that they might remember
what great things God had done for them and their fathers. Old
mercies, to ourselves, or to our fathers, must not be forgotten,
that God may be praised, and our Faith in him encouraged. 2. It
was designed to look forward, as an Earnest of the great
Sacrifice of the Lamb of God in the Fulness of time. Christ our
Passover was sacrificed for us; his Death was our Life.

29-36 The Egyptians had been for three days and nights kept in
anxiety and horror By the Darkness; now their Rest is broken By
a far more terrible calamity. The Plague struck their
First-born, the joy and Hope of their families. They had slain
the Hebrews' children, now God slew theirs. It reached from the
Throne to the Dungeon: Prince and peasant stand upon the same
level before God's judgments. The destroying Angel entered every
dwelling unmarked with Blood, as the Messenger of woe. He did
his dreadful errand, leaving not a House in which there was not
one dead. Imagine then the cry that rang through the land of
Egypt, the long, loud shriek of Agony that burst from every
dwelling. It will be thus in that dreadful Hour when the Son of
Man shall visit sinners with the last Judgment. God's sons, his
First-born, were now released. Men had better come to God's
terms at first, for he will never come to theirs. Now Pharaoh's
pride is abased, and he yields. God's Word will stand; we get
nothing By disputing, or delaying to submit. In this terror the
Egyptians would purchase the favour and the speedy departure of
Israel. Thus the Lord took care that their hard-earned Wages
should be paid, and the people provided for their Journey.

37-42 The children of Israel set forward without delay. A mixed
multitude went with them. Some, perhaps, willing to leave their
country, laid waste By plagues; others, out of curiosity;
perhaps a few out of Love to them and their religion. But there
were always those among the Israelites who were not Israelites.
Thus there are still hypocrites in the Church. This great event
was 430 years from the promise made to Abraham: see Ga 3:17.
So long the promise of a settlement was unfulfilled. But though
God's promises are not performed quickly, they will be, in their
season. This is that night of the Lord, that remarkable night,
to be celebrated in all generations. The great things God does
for his people, are to be not only a few days' wonder, but to be
remembered throughout all ages; especially the work of our
Redemption By Christ. This first Passover-night was a night of
the Lord, much to be observed; but the last Passover-night, in
which Christ was betrayed and in which the first Passover, with
the Rest of the Jewish ceremonies, was done away, was a night of
the Lord, much more to be observed. Then a Yoke, heavier than
that of Egypt, was broken from off our necks, and a land, better
than that of Canaan, set before us. It was a Redemption to be
celebrated in Heaven, for ever and ever.

43-51 In times to come, all the Congregation of Israel must
keep the Passover. All that share in God's mercies should join
in thankful praises for them. The New Testament Passover, the
Lord's Supper, ought not to be neglected By any. Strangers, if
circumcised, might eat of the Passover. Here is an early
indication of favour to the Gentiles. This taught the Jews that
their being a nation favoured By God, entitled them to their
privileges, not their descent from Abraham. Christ our Passover
is sacrificed for us, 1Co 5:7; his Blood is the only Ransom
for our souls; without the shedding of it there is No remission;
without the sprinkling of it there can be No Salvation. Have we,
By Faith in him, sheltered our souls from deserved vengeance
under the protection of his atoning Blood? Do we keep close to
him, constantly depending upon him? Do we So profess our Faith
in the Redeemer, and our obligations to him, that all who pass
By may know to whom we belong? Do we stand prepared for his
service, ready to walk in his ways, and to separate ourselves
from his enemies? These are questions of vast importance to the
soul; may the Lord direct our consciences honestly to answer
them.

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