The statistics of this element
of the periodic table
are as follows:
Atomic Number: 63
Crystal Structure: BCC
Atomic Weight: 152.0
Atomic Radius: 2.56 Å
Covalent Radius: 1.85 Å
Boiling Point (°C): 1439
Melting Point (°C): 826
Heat of Vaporisation: 42
Heat of Fusion: 2.2
First Ionisation Potential Eenergy: 5.67 V
Electrical Conductivity: 0.012
Specific Heat Capacity: 0.039
The discovery of Europium (from the New Latin word Europa meaning Europe) is generally credited to Eugene-Antole Demarcay who separated it out from a material made up of large quantities of Samarium in 1901.However pure Europium metal was not isolated until many years after that.
Despite the discovery being credited to Demarcay knowledge of Europium first surfaces around 1890 when scientist Lecoq de Boisbaudran (another Frenchman and the discover of the elements Gallium, Samarium, and Dysprosium) was studying the spark spectral lines of Gadolinium and Samarium when he saw that some of the lines didn't belong to either of those two elements. Upon seeing that he predicted that another element existed similar to Europium. At present seventeen isotopes of Europium are recognized. Europium has been identified spectroscopically in the sun and certain stars.
Modern methods for Europium production include mixing Eu2 and O3 with a 10%-excess of lanthanum metal and then heating the mixture under a high vacuum. Pure Europium is then collected as a silvery-white metallic deposit.
Of all the rare-earth metals, Europium is one of the rarest and most costly, with an average price of about $7500/kg.
Europium is one of the least heard about elements and there is a very good reason for this; it's boring!
The only noteworthy thing to point out about this element is that its name can be broken down to get either Euro or Opium. Now the Euro is pretty boring in itself, but Opium is a different story all together.
Ok Units. Well you don't need units for the first 3. I was using SI units for the others unless specified. Density is in /g m^-3, Temperature is in Celsius. The heats are in /kJ mol^-1. Electrical conductivity is in uS/cm (microSiemans per centimetre) or old school micromhos per centimetre (umhos/cm), it doesn't really matter. Finally the Specific Heat Capacity is just the heat energy needed to raise the temperature by one degree.