In quantum field theory
, mass and charge are behave pretty weirdly. For example, because of vacuum polarization
, the electric charge that you measure for an electron depends on the distance (or momentum) that you measure it at. So the 'real' electric charge can't be the electric charge that you measure. In effective field theory, the charge that you measure is called 'effective charge', and same goes for the mass. The 'real' mass and charge are called 'bare mass' and 'bare charge'.
This is related to renormalization, which is required in most quantum field theory calculations to get finite answers, when integrating over quantum-uncertain momenta of the particles. When renormalizing, the effective charge is taken to depend on the momenta in such a way that we get finite answers. The 'bare charge' is taken to be infinite, but there is no conflict with experiment!
One way to think about this is that the 'bare charge' is in some way the effective charge at infinite momentum. We don't know what particles do at very high momenta (that is why we build particle accelerators), but we can disguise our ignorance by making the bare charge infinite.
With supersymmetry, the coupling constants (basically same as charges) of qed, electroweak theory and qcd all reach the same value at a certain (pretty high) energy. This has led to theories of how QCD and electroweak theory could be understood as different aspects of the same field, in the same way as in the electroweak theory. But there isn't yet much experimental data for testing these theories.