Atari 2600 Game
Produced by:Zellers
Model Number:(Zellers games had no model number)
Year of Release:n/a
Rarity:6 Rare+

Unauthorized clone of the Atari 2600 game Turtle Race by the Canadian firm Zellers. The box, and manual were different but the game itself was identical, (except for the title screen).

This game is valued at around $15 USD. Games with boxes and manuals are worth more.

Challenge was a clipper ship first launched May 24, 1851. It was intended to be the fastest clipper ship of it's time - indeed the fastest ship period. The name of the architect who designed it was John Griffiths. The shipbuilder was William H. Webb. The name of the Captain was Robert Waterman.

This was meant to be the largest, fastest, and sturdiest ship afloat, and the owners (the Griswold brothers) instructed the builders to spare no expense to that end. The captain was to receive a bonus of $10,000 in addition to the rest of his salary if he broke the record for the trip to San Francisco.

The Challenge took 108 days to make the passage, longer than the previous record. A rival ship, the Flying Cloud, took only 89 days and set a new record.

Sources:

Wired Magazine, January 2002.

http://pc-78-120.udac.se:8001/WWW/Nautica/Ships/Clippers/Challenge(1851).html : a timeline from the launching of the challenge to the end of it's life.

With the California Gold Rush at its height, demand grew for ever-faster ships to round Cape Horn and grease the wheels of trade between San Francisco and the rest of the world. In the midst of this, Nathaniel and George Griswold, New York merchants, approached William Webb, a famous builder of clipper ships, and asked him to build a ship for them. They were willing to pay any sum, but the ship had to be the fastest in existence.

Intrigued, Webb took the job, and built for them the Challenge. The boat cost the Griswolds $150,000 to have built - a normal top of the line clipper went for about $60,000. When it was finished, the ship was the largest in the world - over 250 feet long, with a 97-foot mainmast.

The ship's first voyage was to be a trip from New York to San Francisco, and the Griswold brothers sought to break the record for that journey - at the point, 91 days. To captain their ship, they chose Robert Waterman, who had earned a great deal of fame (and notoreity) as the captain of the Sea Witch, with which he had set a number of speed records for sailing to China. Waterman was retired, but the Grisworlds convinced him to make the journey by offering him a bonus of $10,000 if he could break the record.

The Challenge set sail July 13, 1851, with a crew of 56. Half the crew had never been to sea before - like all clippers of the day, the Challenge relied on "crimps," who kidnapped or coerced men on the waterfront into joining the crew - once the ship put to sea, they had little choice but to serve aboard her.

Waterman joined the ship after it cast off, and his first act, upon seeing the crew, was to fire the first mate. He acquired a first mate he knew, James "Black" Douglass, whose shipboard demeanor was such that he feared putting to shore in New York, worried that former members of his crews would revenge themselves upon him.

The first member of the crew died before they even crossed the equator, while they drifted waiting for a wind to carry them out of the doldrums. Eventually, they were able to pick up a breeze and continue south, however.

Between the equator and the Cape, there appears to have been a mutiny of sorts. Douglass had built a reputation for himself as a "driver" - he was willing to use as much physical force as necessary to bully his unwilling crew into following his orders, and several crewmen tried to kill him. Waterman sprang to Douglas' aid and broke up the mutiny. One man was placed in irons, and another, who had stabbed Douglas, was missing. Eight men were flogged for participation in the mutiny, and the ship continued on its way.

Upon reaching the Cape, however, Waterman ran into more bad luck. A massive storm kept the ship from making any progress, and killed at least three more crew members, flinging them from the rigging, even as dysentery claimed the lives of two others. Another died from illness likely aggravated by being bound to the rail in the storm - a punishment conceived of by Douglass. An Italian by the name of Pawpaw died of a beating received at Douglass' hands when he refused to climb the masts in the thick of the storm. Livening up the proceedings, the missing mutineer was found hiding between decks, and tortured until he confessed his role in the mutiny.

After eighteen days, the storm broke, and the Challenge continued uneventfully to California. It arrived in San Francisco October 29, 1851 - 108 days after it had set sail from New York, having missed the record by the length of the storm. Waterman and Douglass were arrested and tried for murder and other crimes. Waterman ended up being fined $400 for cruel treatment of his crew, while Douglass was convicted of murder and assault, but only fined $250.

The ship itself, having failed to set the record, continued to sail for another 25 years, until it was lost at sea off France, February 7, 1877.


BRANDS, H.W., (2002) The Age of Gold. New York: Doubleday
http://pc-78-120.udac.se:8001/WWW/Nautica/Ships/Clippers/Challenge(1851).html
http://pc-78-120.udac.se:8001/WWW/Nautica/News/BDA/BDA(1851-06-16).html

Chal"lenge (?), n. [OE. chalenge claim, accusation, challenge, OF. chalenge, chalonge, claim, accusation, contest, fr. L. calumnia false accusation, chicanery. See Calumny.]

1.

An invitation to engage in a contest or controversy of any kind; a defiance; specifically, a summons to fight a duel; also, the letter or message conveying the summons.

A challenge to controversy. Goldsmith.

2.

The act of a sentry in halting any one who appears at his post, and demanding the countersign.

3.

A claim or demand.

[Obs.]

There must be no challenge of superiority. Collier.

4. Hunting

The opening and crying of hounds at first finding the scent of their game.

5. Law

An exception to a juror or to a member of a court martial, coupled with a demand that he should be held incompetent to act; the claim of a party that a certain person or persons shall not sit in trial upon him or his cause.

Blackstone

6.

An exception to a person as not legally qualifed to vote. The challenge must be made when the ballot is offered.

[U. S.]

Challenge to the array Law, an exception to the whole panel. -- Challenge to the favor, the alleging a special cause, the sufficiency of which is to be left to those whose duty and office it is to decide upon it. -- Challenge to the polls, an exception taken to any one or more of the individual jurors returned. -- Peremptory challenge, a privilege sometimes allowed to defendants, of challenging a certain number of jurors (fixed by statute in different States) without assigning any cause. -- Principal challenge, that which the law allows to be sufficient if found to be true.

 

© Webster 1913.


Chal"lenge, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Challenged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Challenging.] [OE. chalengen to accuse, claim, OF. chalengier, chalongier, to claim, accuse, dispute, fr. L. calumniar to attack with false accusations. See Challenge, n., and cf. Calumniate.]

1.

To call to a contest of any kind; to call to answer; to defy.

I challenge any man to make any pretense to power by right of fatherhood. Locke.

2.

To call, invite, or summon to answer for an offense by personal combat.

By this I challenge him to single fight. Shak.

3.

To claim as due; to demand as a right.

Challenge better terms. Addison.

4.

To censure; to blame.

[Obs.]

He complained of the emperors . . . and challenged them for that he had no greater revenues . . . from them. Holland.

5. Mil.

To question or demand the countersign from (one who attempts to pass the lines); as, the sentinel challenged us, with "Who comes there?"

6.

To take exception to; question; as, to challenge the accuracy of a statement or of a quotation.

7. Law

To object to or take exception to, as to a juror, or member of a court.

8.

To object to the reception of the vote of, as on the ground that the person in not qualifed as a voter.

[U. S.]

To challenge to the array, favor, polls. See under Challenge, n.

 

© Webster 1913.


Chal"lenge, v. i.

To assert a right; to claim a place.

Where nature doth with merit challenge. Shak.

 

© Webster 1913.

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