An ancient town in the western part of Boeotia, in the valley of the Cephissus river. Located somewhat northwest of Thebes and southeast of Mt. Parnassus. Location of the defeat of the Athenians and the Boeotians by Philip of Macedon in 338 BC, and of the defeat of Mithridates by Sulla in 86 BC. Plutarch was born in Chaeronea, and also spent the later years of his life there.

A particularly striking episode in the history of Chaeronea is recounted by Plutarch in his life of Cimon. When the town was under Roman occupation, the commander of the cohort took a shine to a boy called Damon. Damon, enraged by the solicitation, and fearing violence on the part of the commander, rounded up a few of his friends, and went and killed the Roman commander while he was sacrificing in the market-place. Damon and his friends fled the city and were condemned to death in absentia. But in the evening, while the magistrates were dining together, Damon and his friends burst into the town hall, killed them, and fled the city again. Damon was eventually tricked into returning to the city, and was killed.

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