As grandson of the deposed James II, Prince Charles Edward Stuart believed that he was rightful heir to the thrones of England and Scotland.

In 1745 he landed with a handful of men on the west coast of Scotland, determined to wrest the throne from King George II. Almost at once many of the Highland clans rallied to his cause. He unfurled his standard at Glenfinnan, where a fine memorial now stands. Charles won much of his support by his audacity and his charm. It was this which earned him his name Bonnie Prince Charlie.

Marching south with an army of Highlanders, Charles captured Edinburgh and held court in the ancient palace of Holyrood. He then went on to smash an army loyal to George and to march into England. By December Charles had led his clansmen as far as Derby. Here Charles was forced to turn back. At Culloden Moor on 16 April, 1746, Charles' force was caught by a larger army and practically annihilated.

Bonnie Prince Charlie went on the run and finally fled to France. He took to drinking heavily and died a lonely man in Rome in 1788.

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