Also known as the Babylonian Captivity, period from 1309 to 1377 during which the papacy resided in Avignon, France instead of Rome, Italy.

In 1309 Pope Clement V moved the papal capital to Avignon due to the violence, chaos, and factionism in Rome at the time and the ongoing invitation of French King Philip IV to relocate to France. During the papacy's residence in Avignon, the College of Cardinals increased its power in the church and initiated reform, education, and missionary campaigns. Due to antagonism from other West European countries, namely England and Germany towards the papacy being located in France, during this period the Church lost power and prestige. This period also had the effect of strengthening French control over the church in France, even after the papacy had returned to Rome. This was later expressed in acts such as the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. In 1377 Pope Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome, ending the Avignon papacy and causing the Great Schism after his death.

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