Title: AV-8B Harrier Assault
Author: Simis
Released: 1991/1992 by Domark
No. of disks: unknown
HDD installable: yes
Lanuages: English
RAM: 1meg

An accurate and tediously slow flight simulation of the Harrier Jump Jet. Unfortunately that's the only part of the game they paid attention to. Your carrier (the grey rectangle), your enemies (grey triangles), and your explosions (a dozen thin yellow lines) will take little part in your enjoyment - it's almost as if they hate you and want you to question why you bothered decoding the interface (click the phone to start the mission, the file-cabinet refuels my plane, why of course!). It really needs an A1200 and will appeal to purists only.

Comically the game's files could be renamed to allow use of the truck model instead of your harrier when flying.

The Harrier jet was introduced to the world by BAe British Aerospace in 1969. It is classified as a V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) aircraft. Thanks to its excellently aligned and powerful Rolls-Royce engine, the Harrier can vertically takeoff from a nearly stationary position. Today, the Harrier is produced by BAe/McDonnell Douglas and is one of the most advanced aircraft in the world.


Specs:


Models-

Sea Harrier FRS.Mk 1
•Sea Harrier FRS.Mk 2
•Harrier Mk 50
•Harrier GR.Mk 3/T.Mk 4
•Harrier GR.Mk 5/5A
•Harrier GR.Mk 7
•Harrier T.Mk 10
•AV-8A/C/S Harrier
•AV-8B Harrier II
•TAV-8B Harrier II


Operators-

United States
Italy
Great Britain
Spain
India


Powerplant-

•Rolls-Royce F402-RR-406A Turbofan
•Rolls-Royce F402-RR-408 Turbofan
•Rolls-Royce Pegasus Mk 104
•Rolls-Royce Pegasus Mk 105


Average Length (Fuselage and tail)-

•47 feet


Average Wingspan-

•30 feet, 4 inches


Average Max G-Force Limits-

•-3 to +8 Gs

Average Max Speed-

•825 mph


Weapon Capability-

•GAU-12/A Equaliser Cannons
•AIM-9/9L/9M Sidewinder Missiles
•Mk7 Cluster Bombs
•Mk 82/83 Bombs
•LAU-10/68/69 Rocket Pods
•AGM-65 Maverick
•CBU-55/72 Fuel-Air Explosives
•Mk 77 FireBombs
•GBU-12/16 LGBs
•AMRAAM Missiles
•Sparrow Missiles
•Harpoon Missiles
•30-mm ADEN Cannons
•WE177 Free-fall Nuclear Bombs
•Retarded HE Free-fall Bombs
•BAe Sea Eagle ASM
•AGM-84 Harpoon ASM
•Lepus Flare Units
•CBLS Bomb Dispenser
•MATRA Magic



Notes: "Models" are all recent produced Harriers. "Operators" are countries that own, owned, or have ordered the most Harriers; of any variety. "Powerplant" is the plane's powersource, each Harrier has one (1) of those engines. "Average Length" is my calculated average length of all of the Harrier models. "Average Wingspan" is my calculated average wingspan for all of the Harrier models. "Average G-Force Limits" is my calculated average of resistance to gravitational pulls on the Harrier. "Average Max Speed" is the largest speed any Harrier has ever pulled. "Weapon Capability" is all of the weaponry a Harrier is capable of holding, not at one time, though. WE177 Free-fall Nuclear Bombs were recently withdrawn from the active Harrier weapon inventory. MATRA Magic is only used by India. Most of the specs are based on the AV-8B Harrier II.

AV-8B Harrier

This aircraft is the first large-scale deployment of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft in any military force in the world. Used by the United States and Great Britain, this aircraft has a multitude of mission capabilities for the nations that use it. Developed jointly by British Aerospace companies and McDonnell Douglas in the United States, the Harrier also represented a push by the NATO nations to standardize and consolidate some of the equipment to help shoulder the production costs. The aircraft was first deployed operationally on January 1987, while the first plans for the aircraft were pre-1978, when the first prototype flew for demonstration purposes.

Specifications

The aircraft was designed from the start as a single seat, close air support aircraft. The VTOL concept was also one of the major design considerations in the new aircraft. The Harrier has seven hardpoints to carry weapons, electronic jammers, and external fuel. Six hardpoints are on the wings, with one hardpoint on the center of the fuselage. The aircraft can carry over 5000 pounds of ordnance for combat. Length of the craft is 46.33 feet, has a 30.33 foot wingspan, and is 11.65 feet tall. When on a close support mission the aircraft can remain on the ground for 60 minutes waiting for an attack call plus 1.9 hours in the air with a combat radius of 192 miles with a full combat load. Adding external fuel tanks on any of the hardpoints can increase the radius and the time in the air. The flight time can increase up to an hour with the combat radius increasing 75 to 100 miles.

British Usage

The British use the Harrier as their primary carrier based fixed wing aircraft. The British carrier design differs from United States carriers in that the end of the launch deck is curved upward at the last hundred or so feet (depending on design and class of the vessel.) This allows the aircraft to be released into the air with an upward angle of flight, allowing the British to field smaller carriers requiring less resources overall. This limits the aircraft onboard to craft that can handle such takeoffs. The Harrier therefore remains the main fixed wing aircraft able to take off from British carriers. The Harrier can be used for air to air combat and performed excellently in the Falkland War between Britain and Argentina. The Argentine military had invaded the Falkland Islands, an area under British rule. British carriers were sent to the islands and encountered the Argentine Airforce. Harriers were launched and were able to down multiple Argentine aircraft with minimal casualties to the British forces in the area.

United States Usage

The United States uses the Harrier only in the United States Marine Corps (USMC). The aircraft is used as the primary fixed wing close support aircraft, supplemented by the F/A-18 Hornet. The Bell Cobra helicopter is the primary rotary wing support aircraft of the Marine Corps. The Harrier was used in the Gulf War to great effect to eliminate enemy tanks for ground forces during 100-hour push against Saddam's army. The Harrier was equipped with the laser guided Maverick missile for anti tanks missions, the Sidewinder heat seeking missile for air to air combat and a multitude of bombs, both smart and dumb, for use against ground targets.

Harrier Technology

The centerpiece of the AV-8B is its ability to hover stationary, as well as land or take off vertically. This is accomplished by a unique system of ducts and vector thrusting mechanisms. The centerpiece is the Rolls Royce F402 turbofan with 21,550 lbs. of thrust during vertical maneuvers. There are 4 thrust nozzles on the fuselage to direct the trust downward. When the aircraft is in forward flight mode the nozzles are at the 0-degree position. These nozzles are rotated downward for vertical flight, up to 98.5 degrees downward. This allows the aircraft to backup or resist a tailwind during landing. The aircraft can also slip side to side or rotate on its center axis.

Weaponry

A list of the weapons available for use by the AV-8B Harrier:

  • MK-83 Single Dumb bombs (Laser Guided Modifications Available)
  • MK-82 Triple Cluster dumb bombs (Laser Guided Modifications Available)
  • MK-81 Multiple Cluster dumb bombs
  • MK-20 Rockeye II Cluster bombs
  • MK-77 Firebombs (Napalm)
  • LAU-10 Multiple Dumb Rocket Pods
  • LAU-61 Multiple Dumb Rocket Pods
  • LAU-68 Multiple Dumb Rocket Pods
  • AIM-9 Sidewinder Heat Seeking missiles
  • AGM-65 Maverick Anti Tank missiles
  • GAU-12 25mm Cannon

Limitations

A major limitation of the system is that the forward thrust nozzles use cold air being compressed by the turbofan for thrust. This makes the power available for the vertical lifting dependant on the ambient temperature. At a temperature of 60 degrees the gross takeoff weight of the aircraft is limited to 19,000 lbs. Should the temperature increase to 110 degrees the gross takeoff weight is limited to 17,000 lbs. These situations were encountered by Harrier squadrons in the Gulf War where the temperature could shift from 40 degrees at night to 110 degrees in the afternoon, meaning the same combat loads could not be used at all times during the day.

The Future

Perhaps the most surprising of the limitations that the Harrier has is that during live fire testing the aircraft was discovered to be the most vulnerable to small arms fire in the entire inventory of the United States military. This important discovery helped push the development of the Harrier's replacement the Joint Strike Fighter. This new aircraft can hover and perform all of the missions of the AV-8B Harrier, but is able to perform better in all categories. The future of the Harrier is to become a National Guard vehicle, and then to be retired as it becomes outdated by modern technology.

Bibliography:

http://www.hqmc.usmc.mil/factfile.nsf/7e931335d515626a8525628100676e0c/5306aebae2b024dd8525626e0048ccf7?OpenDocument

Interviews with former Harrier Pilots, USMC

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