"England expects every man to do his duty."  - Horatio Nelson

Born in 1805:

Died in 1805: Events of 1805:
  • Beethoven's Third Symphony, now rededicated "to the memory of a great man", premeires on April 7. Although considered a turning point in music today, many patrons thought it too long.
  • The Syndey Gazette publishes the first description of the Thylacine (marsupial wolf), now extinct.
  • The Michigan Territory is carved out of the Indiana Territory.
  • (May) Egyptians revolt against the Ottoman viceroy, Khurshid Pasha.   An Albanian general, Mehmet Ali, is put in his place.
  • Haiti enacts a second constitution. Emperor Jacques I tries to take Santo Domingo from the French but fails.
  • In the Territory of Orleans, the City of New Orelans is incorporated; the territorial government sets up 12 counties (yes, counties).
  • Sir Walter Scott publishes the Lay of the Last Minstrel.
  • Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery continue their expedition.
    • (February) Sacajewea gives birth to a son while the Corps winters in Fort Mandan in North Dakota.
    • (April 7) The Corps continues up the Missouri by flatboat.
    • (April 25) Lewis sees the mouth of the Yellowstone River in eastern Montana.
    • (May 26) The Rocky Mountains are sighted for the first time.
    • Everyone is worried; Winter is coming fast and the Shoshone (and their much-needed horses) are nowhere to be seen.  Finally, Sacajewea begins recognizing the country.
    • (July 27) The Corps reaches the Three Forks of the Missouri.  Lewis scouts ahead while the rest of the Corps follows.
    • (August 12) Lewis crosses the Continental Divide but sees the fearsome Bitterroot Range in the distance.
    • The Corps meets the Shoshone.  There is a reunion between Sacajewea and her brother, Shoshone chief Cameahwait.
    • (September 22) After an grueling 11-day crossing, the Corps stumbles into a Nez Perce village on the far side of the Bitterroots.
    • (November 7) The Pacific Ocean is finally spotted.  The weather, however, is rapidly getting worse.
    • (December 25) The expedition builds Fort Clatsop in Oregon to spend the winter.
  • French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte has his greatest victory, but the seeds of his demise are sown.
    • Napoleon has his Grande Armee of 200,000 in Normandy, ready for an invasion of Great Britain: The trick: To get them across the English Channel.  Napoleon orders the French fleet in Toulon and the Spanish fleet in Cadiz to:
      • break their respective British blockades,
      • sail to the West Indies,
      • ravage British settlements there,
      • sail back across the Atlantic to meet the rest of the French fleet at Brest,
      • defeat the British Navy off the coast of Brittany,
      • finally, help in an invasion of Great Britain.
    • (March 30) The fleets run the blockade; 20 French and Spanish ships under Villeneuve sail for Martinique.
    • (April 11) Britain and Russia sign a treaty of alliance against Napoleon.
    • Nelson pursues Villeneuve across the Atlantic with 10 ships.
    • Villeneuve turns back.
    • (May 26) Napoleon has himself crowned King of Italy.
    • (July 22) A battle off Cape Finisterre costs Villeneuve two ships, and he has to put back into Cadiz for respires and reinforcements.
    • (September 10) The Austrians invade Bavaria with 85,000 men, occupying Ulm.
    • Napoleon threatens to remove Villeneuve's command.  He pulls his army out of Normandy and marches it into Germany.
    • (October 7) Beginning at Wertingen, Napoleon wins a series of battles cutting the Austrian army off,  surrounding it at Ulm.
    • (October 19) Villeneuve tries to sail out of Cadiz but the winds wont' let him get enough ships out to face the British, and he has to return.
    • (October 20) The Austrians surrender Ulm to Napoleon. Meanwhile, a second attempt gets the entire fleet out of Cadiz.
    • (October 21) Nelson's 29 ships catch Villeneuve's 33 ships off Cape Trafalgar.  Nelson is able to "cross the T" and the combined fleet is shattered.  Although Nelson is killed during the battle, Napoleon's plans to invade England are ruined, and the British hold a command of the seas that will last until World War I.
    • (November 13) The French army occupies Vienna.   The premiere of Ludwig van Beethoven's only opera, Fidelio, is ruined.
    • (December 2) Napoleon crushes the combined Russian/Austrian army at the Battle of Austerlitz (near modern-day Brno).
    • (December 6) Napoleon, Austrian Emperor Francis I and Tsar Alexander meet at the Chateau Austerlitz to sign a ceasefire.
    • (December 26) The Treaty of Pressburg (Bratislava) cleans up the map of Europe while acknowledging Napoleon's supremacy over Europe.  Most notably:
      • Napoleon's allies Bavaria and Württemberg are elevated to kingdoms and given slices of Austrian territory.  Austria renounces all claims to territory in southern Germany. Another ally, Baden, is enlarged as well.
      • The Austrians cede Venice, Istria, and Dalmatia to Napoleon, who makes them part of his Kingdom of Italy.
      • Salzburg becomes part of Austria, but Bavaria gets all of Tyrol.
      • Austria pays napoleon 40,000,000 francs.

1804 - 1805 - 1806

How they Were Made - 19th Century

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